Sex Differences in Heart Disease

Sex Differences in Heart Disease

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality in men and women. Unfortunately, women have traditionally been excluded from clinical trials, and female animals have been used less or sex was not reported in basic research studies. Until recently, consideration of both sexes was not required in clinical and preclinical studies focusing on cardiovascular diseases. However, the number of clinical and experimental papers dealing with sex differences and heart disease significantly increases during the last years.


This trend is obviously the result of at least two facts: the number of examples of different behavior of the male and female heart under physiological and pathological conditions is steadily increasing and there were controversial reports on the beneficial and adverse effect of hormonal replacement therapy. Detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms of these differences are still unknown but one is clear already today: sex differences are so important that they should be considered by the selection of optimum diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in clinical practice.





This website strictly complies with DMCA Digital Copyright Laws.. Please be clear that we ( do not own copyrights of these e-books. The intention behind sharing these books and educational material is to provide easy access to students, researchers and other readers who don't have access to these books at their local libraries, "thus only for educational purpose". We highly encourage our readers to purchase this content from the respected publishers. If anyone holding copyrights wants us to remove this content, please contact us rightaway. All books and educational material on are free and NOT HOSTED ON OUR WEBSITE. If you feel that your copyrights have been violated, then please contact us immediately. You may send an email to for all DMCA / Removal Requests. doesn’t have any material hosted on the server of this page, only links to books that are taken from other sites on the web are published and these links are unrelated to the book server. server doesnot store any type of book or material. No illegal copies are made or any copyright © and / or copyright is damaged or infringed since all material is free on the internet.

Add a Comment